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Dendrite to Eye





In dualism, ‘mind’ is contrasted with ‘body,’ but at different times, different aspects of the mind have been the centre of attention. In the classical and mediaeval periods, it was the intellect that was thought to be most obviously resistant to a materialistic account: from Descartes on, the main stumbling block to materialist monism was supposed to be ‘consciousness,’ of which phenomenal consciousness or sensation came to be considered as the paradigm instance.


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Wave mechanics was based upon three fundamental hypotheses:

A. Stationary states are determined by complexvalued wave functions

psi(q), which remain finite everywhere in q-space.

B. The functions psi satisfy a differential equation


in which the operator H is obtained from the classical Hamiltonian H(p; q)
by replacing every momentum p by


C. The eigenvalues E are the energy values. To these three hypotheses,
Schrödinger added Bohr’s postulate:


This theory was presented in Schrödinger’s first and second communications
on “Quantisierung als Eigenwertproblem” in Annalen der Physik 79. The first
communication was received on 27 January, and the second on 23 February

On the other hand, matrix mechanics was invented by Heisenberg in June
1925, and presented in a fully developed form in Dirac’s first paper on
quantum mechanics(received 7 November 1925) and also in the famous
“three-men’s paper” of Born, Heisenberg and Jordan (received 16 November
1925). This theory was based upon four mechanical hypotheses and two
radiation hypotheses. The mechanical hypotheses are:

1. The behaviour of a mechanical system is determinedby the matrices
p and q (one matrix q forevery coordinate q, and one p for every
momentum p).


if p belongs to the same coordinate q, otherwise equal to 0.

3. H(p, q) = W = diagonal matrix, having diagonal elements En,
the energy values.

4. Equations of motion:


~BL van der Waerden [PDF]


Mathematics has introduced the name isomorphic representation for the relation which according to Helmholtz exists between objects and their signs. I should like to carry out the precise explanation of this notion between the points of the projective plane and the color qualities [...] the projective plane and the color continuum are isomorphic with one another. Every theorem which is correct in the one system Sigma1 is transferred unchanged to the other Sigma2. A science can never determine its subject matter except up to an isomorphic representation. The idea of isomorphism indicates the self-understood, insurmountable barrier of knowledge. It follows that toward the "nature" of its objects science maintains complete indifference. This for example what distinguishes the colors from the points of the projective plane one can only know in immediate alive intuition...


EM waves


Fundamental electromagnetic interactions occur between any two particles that have electric charge. These interactions involve the exchange or production of photons. Thus, photons are the carrier particles of electromagnetic interactions.



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God does not play dice with the universe. ~Einstein

A theory that yields "maybe" as an answer should be recognized as an inaccurate theory.

't Hooft

Can it really be true that Einstein, in any significant sense, was a profoundly "wrong" as the followers of Bohr maintain? I do not believe so. I would, myself, side strongly with Einstein in his belief in a submiscroscopic reality, and with his conviction that present-day quantum mechanics is fundamentally incomplete. 


In attempting to judge the success of a physical theory, we may ask ourselves two questions: (1) “Is the theory correct?” and (2) “Is the description given by the theory complete?” It is only in the case in which positive answers may be given to both of these questions, that the concepts of the theory may be said to be satisfactory. The correctness of the theory is judged by the degree of agreement between the conclusions of the theory and human experience...

Whatever the meaning assigned to the term complete, the following requirement for a complete theory seems to be a necessary one: every element of the physical reality must have a counterpart in the physical theory.


Thus "this is red," "this is earlier than that," are atomic propositions.

Russell & Whitehead

The supreme goal of all theory is to make the irreducible basic elements as simple and as few as possible without having to surrender the adequate representation of a single datum of experience.

Elements of reality 

The world as described by natural science has no obvious place for colours, tastes, or smells.


eye anatomy