Smart Remarks 3: Leibniz, Maxwell, Turing, Churchland, Lockwood, Salam, Wigner


 

 

 

 




Leibniz                   



Leibniz




Besides, it must be confessed that Perception and its consequences are inexplicable by mechanical causes; that is to say, by figures and motions.

Leibniz



 

If we imagine a machine so constructed as to produce thought, sensation, perception, we may conceive it magnified — to such an extent that one might enter it like a mill. This being supposed, we should find in it on inspection only pieces which impel each other, but nothing which can explain a perception. It is in the simple substance, therefore, —not in the compound, or in the machinery, —that we must look for that phenomenon [...] 

Leibniz     






computation

McCulloch

Turing

In 1943 Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts proposed a general theory of information processing based on networks of binary switching or decision elements, which are somewhat euphemistically called "neurons," although they are far simpler than their real biological counterparts ...

McCulloch and Pitts showed that such networks can, in principle, carry out any imaginable computation, similar to a programmable, digital computer or its mathematical abstraction, the Turing machine.

Muller, Reinhardt

  



When a beam of light falls on the human eye, certain sensations are produced, from which the possessor of that organ judges of the color and luminance of the light. Now, though everyone experiences these sensations and though they are the foundation of all the phenomena of sight, yet, on account of their absolute simplicity, they are incapable of analysis, and can never become in themselves objects of thought. If we attempt to discover them, we must do so by artificial means and our reasonings on them must be guided by some theory.

Maxwell



[All] chemical binding is electromagnetic in origin, and so are all phenomena of nerve impulses.


Salam 

color sphere

   

Turing

Turing


Turing had a strong predeliction for working things out from first principles, usually in the first instance without consulting any previous work on the subject, and no doubt it was this habit which gave his work that characteristically original flavor. I was reminded of a remark which Beethoven is reputed to have made when he was asked if he had heard a certain work of Mozart which was attracting much attention. He replied that he had not, and added "neither shall I do so, lest I forfeit some of my own originality."

 "Some Comments from a Numerical Analyst"

James H. Wilkinson

NNs
















Maxwell









Lockwood


Salam



Maxwell


What it would amount to, in terms of the present proposal, is that we have a 'special' or 'privileged' access, via some of our own brain activity, to the intrinsic character of, say, electromagnetism.

Lockwood

color

EM (pdf)


eye

 





forms








Wigner

[Let] us now turn to the assumption opposite to the “first alternative” considered so far: that the laws of physics will have to be modified drastically if they are to account for the phenomena of life. Actually, I believe that this second assumption is the correct one.

Can arguments be adduced to show the need for modification? There seem to be two such arguments. The first is that, if one entity is influenced by another entity, in all known cases the latter one is also influenced by the former. The most striking and originally the least expected example for this is the influence of light on matter, most obviously in the form of light pressure. That matter influences light is an obvious fact—if it were not so, we could not see objects. The influence of light on matter is, however, a more subtle effect and is virtually unobservable under the conditions which surround us [...] Since matter clearly influences the content of our consciousness, it is natural to assume that the opposite influence also exists, thus demanding the modification of the presently accepted laws of nature which disregard this influence.



Wigner


Since matter clearly influences the content of our consciousness, it is natural to assume that the opposite influence also exists, thus demanding the modification of the presently accepted laws of nature which disregard this influence.

Wigner      








mind

matter








Llinas

Pellionisz











Umezawa

Does neural form follow quantum function?


As we have seen in preceding sections, manifestation of ordered states is of quantum origin. When we recall that almost all of the macroscopic ordered states are the result of quantum field theory, it seems natural to assume that macroscopic ordered states in biological systems are also created by a similar mechanism. 

Umezawa








fractals

 

 

 


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